In the following pawn structure:
I currently treat both white pawns on c2 and c3 as backwards. I'm concerned that by doing so my engine is too interested in exchanging bishop for knight in order to double the c pawns while simultaneously making them both backwards. This overwhelms the value of the pieces and the giving up of the bishop pair. Approximate values for the doubled pawn and backward pawn penalties are 11 cp and 17 cp in the opening/midgame. So in total the pawn structure gives white a 45 cp penalty. Are people perhaps penalizing the c2 pawn less since white could advance and trade the c3 pawn to both undo both the doubled and backward pawn situation for the pawn on c2?
And lastly. If we block the white pawns with another black pawn:
Do we now consider both c2 and c3 as backwards? This seems like a more permanent situation.